Water pumps are machines for moving water from one point to another. Water pumps are used mainly to lift water from low points to high points from where it can flow with gravity.
In houses, most water storage tanks are in the roof and the supply pressure is never enough to take the water from the supply pipes to the tanks. In farms water is mostly stored at the lowest point and for the water to be used it has to be pumped from its source to the fields and crops.
Water pumps come in many forms and your choice should be informed by your budget, nature of use intended for the pump and availability/lack of electricity.
Types of water pumps.
The main two categories are surface water pumps and submersible water pumps.
- Surface pumps can be further divided into
- Solar water pumps
- Electric water pumps
- Generator water pumps.
2. Submersible water pumps are divided into
- Solar powered water pumps
- Electric water pumps
Submersible water pumps
This are dipped in water and should only be used when the water level is above the pump. They are reliable and easy to maintain as they require servicing once every 3-5 years. They are normally encased in a stainless-steel cover and as such don’t rust. They are used to pump water from deep wells and boreholes.
Solar powered submersible water pumps.
Connected to a solar panel that generates energy this pump can be used in any area. They are more expensive to install than electric water pumps but once installed the running costs are only servicing of the solar panel and the pump.
Electric submersible pump.
These pumps use electricity and are either single phase or three phase electric water pumps.
This are pumps that are operated from the surface and as such use suction to pull water then pump it.
Generator Water Pumps
This are basically generators that are modified to pump water. They are portable, easy to use, and come in various sizes according to the pump’s power. They require regular servicing for optimal performance as they are prone to mechanical damage.
These pumps can either be diesel or petrol powered.
Electric water pumps
These are small inexpensive pumps powered by an AC electric current to pump low water volumes. They are to install, operate and service. They are portable and require low voltage to operate. The disadvantage is that without electricity they won’t function.
Solar surface water pumps
Just like electric water pumps they are normally on surface and they use solar power to operate. They are cheap to operate but they will require a solar panel and battery to function.
Price of water pumps.
The price of a water pump will depend on
- Head (the height which it can pump water to)
- Brand of the pump
- The volume of water it can pimp per hour.
- Whether it’s a surface pump or submersible pump.
- County of manufacture.